Traditional Dresses of the European Nations by Country

Traditional Dresses of the European Nations by Country

There are fifty-one countries belonging to the European countries, including the seven transcontinental countries such as Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Georgia, and Kazakhstan. Cyprus and Armenia are likewise part of the European Nation. The biggest county goes to Russia, while the smallest is the famous Vatican City located in the heart of Rome.

Each country has more than one traditional clothing originating from various regions. Traditional dresses are an outfit that consists of the national costume with accessories and jewelry worn in the olden times. Each was displaying iconic intricacies and excellent artistry filled with culture and national identity. Traditional dresses play an essential role in a country for it represents their customs, heritage, and national identity.


Albania has various traditional clothing adorned with symbols of the sun, moon, stars, and others of pagan origin. Other decorative patterns are a mix of Catholic, Orthodox, Islamic and Jewish icons. Traditional Albanian fabrics were made from lines, wool, and hemp. Cotton was utilized in the 19th century, while silk was imported from other countries and was rarely used in mountainous and countryside. Known to use natural dyes from vegetables producing stark colors of black, brown, red, green, blue, and violet.

Headdress for men

Albanian Hat – Ancient hat was worn in the 15th to 18th century depicted in some of Onofuri's artworks.  Onofuri Argitis was a well-known painter in the 16th century noted for using vibrant natural dyes. One of his popular artwork is the resurrection of Lazarus.

Qeleshe – a cone or round shaped hat used in the Northern part of Albania, Kosovo and other Albanian speaking regions.

Qylafe – A type of high hat made from wool adorned in the Southern region of Albania.

Headdress for women

Kapica – A cap for both men and women worn in Albania, Serbia, and Macedonia. Made from satin, surmounted with a scarf with an open front, decorated with pendants made from a pewter base material.


Fustanella - The traditional clothing for me characterized by a pleated skirt or a kilt made from white cotton. The royal guards of Albania in between the first and the Second World War adorned black colored fustanelle. Inspired by the Greek's tunic, developed with thicker folds to keep them warm. 

Tirq - Associated with the Roman bootleg or toreatca, a tirq is the traditional long pants used by men. Embroidered with a stripe pattern or gajtan with asymmetrical geometric forms on the frontal part of the pants indicating their tribe.

Jelek - A waistcoat sewn with black colored thread on the hem.

Xhamadani is a long-sleeved jacket made with brightly colored fabric that can be worn together with the jelek. Gold and black embroidery represent a high-ranking individual.

Dollame - A coat made from untainted felt fabric adorned on top of a white shirt. During cold seasons, a woolen black short-sleeved jacket is worn on top of the traditional dress.

Cibun - is a dark blue or white coat worn in portions of southeast Albania.

Brekusha - Trousers are worn by both men and women with a round or cylindrical woolen hat called qeleche.

Fez - A headdress commonly worn in most cities of Albania adorned with a long tassel.

Brez - a large belt made of striped fabric adorned with pistols, tobacco container and gold jewelry.

Opinga - A pair of leather shoes molded the feet with the use of a wool strap.

Dress for Women

Xhubelete - A thick and heavy skirt made from strips of felt fabric adorned with asymmetrical geometric shapes typical of a gajtan embroidery. Fashioned with a dark-colored fabric, a bell-shaped skirt, with a combination of red and silver stripes.

Xhoka - A waistcoat made from a piece of felt fabric, styled with pleats and a triangular sleeve with red or wool trimmings depending on the region.

The colors red, white, and black represents the stages of life—white for teens, red for married women, and black for geriatrics.

Corapat - Hand knitted socks with distinctive patterns of their villages.



Andorra is a country rich in culture displayed in their folk dances where they wear their traditional clothing.

A full length skirt with a petticoat underneath characterizes women's traditional clothing. Worn with a white long-sleeved blouse with a floral shawl, a pair of black lacy gloves, white stockings, and cloth sandals called espadrilles.

Men's traditional clothing includes a white shirt worn together with knee-length breeches, white stockings, a red sash, long-sleeved black coat with large buttons, back colored shoes, and a cloth or fur hat with a colored tassel.


By Raffi Kojian

West Armenian women's traditional outfit:

Taraz – free-flowing dress with a split on the sides and the middle potion styled colored decorations representing different elements red for air, yellow for fire, balk for the earth, and white for water. Dresses made from silk, satin, or velvet with a gold or silver thread embroidery represents high social status.

The taraz is worn together with an apron, belt or sash, coat, and shoes. Ornate headdresses adorned with coins and jewelry.

East Armenian women's traditional clothing:

The ensemble includes a long red shirt and pants, a shoulder dress with a velvet coat, silver-colored belt or sash, and shoes.

Men's traditional clothing:

The ensemble includes a shirt, baggy trousers, fur kaftan or waistcoats, a sash, and a hat. Light-colored coats are typical for men of high status, while a worker with a lower position in the society wore a dark colored jacket.

Worn together with a hat made from a fur or woven fabric made in different sizes, forms, and designs. Scarves and handkerchiefs were also used in place of hats. Papakha is a large a furry typical hat worn in the Caucasus.


CC BY-SA 3.0

Austria's traditional clothes include:

Dirndl - An everyday light-colored dress used by women living in the countryside characterized by a knee-length dress with a full skirt gathered around the waist. A heavy and warm version of the dirndl is worn during the winter season, commonly available in dark colors worn together with an apron adorned around the waist.

Lederhosen - Typically a clothing worn by the working class men. Characterized by a pair of leather shorts worn with embroidered suspender straps.

Tracht - Once a peasant or farmers wear, worn in German-speaking countries. These are occasionally worn during weddings and festivities. Originally made from wool, leather, and linen fabrics. The high society elites exclusively used vibrantly colored clothes; this practice was later abolished in the 18th century.

Lodencape - A laborer wear characterized by a thick, water-resistant wool coat made from mountain sheep wool.

HaferlschuhA - Working shoes used in the mountainous regions of Austria.


Veoctis, CC BY-SA 4.0

The traditional clothing of the Azerbaijani is inspired by its history, belief and identity as a nation. Each style represents the wearer's financial and marital status based on the color. 

Traditional women's clothing includes:

 The ensemble consists of wide-sleeved, bell-shaped shirts and ankle-length baggy pants. Worn together with a kulaja, a tight-fitting, long-sleeved knitted dress, a belt, and a long cloak.

Chadra and rubend

Shawl and veil were worn when going outside their homes.

In Karabakh located in the southern region of Azerbaijan, women wore a chafken, tight-fitting dress with long concealed sleeves. 

Chargat / Kelaghayi

Square-cut headscarf made from a silk fabric distinct to Azerbaijani women representing purity, devotion and respect.


Knitted shoes are characterized by intricately woven patterns representing wealth.

Traditional men's clothing includes:

Typical ensemble includes a shirt, large pants fastened with tapes. 

Arkalig - A tight-waisted long sleeved coat fashioned from a silk, satin, velvet or cashmere fabric. The fabric used signifies the financial status of the wearer.

Gaba - A headdress for men made from a luxurious fabric embroidered with silk or wool pattern.

Kurk  - A collared coat made from an embroidered lamb fur.



Hanna Zelenko, CC BY-SA 3.0

Traditional clothes of Belarus are quite simple, consisting of embroidered collared and hem shirt, pants, and vest. Overcoats were made of sheepskin for regular individuals while the wealthy wear fur coats. Famers wore shoes called lapti made from willow or hemp bark, while the rich wear leather boots.

Women either wore a combination of a skirt and an apron, a waistcoat with a skirt and apron, or a corset with an apron, waistcoat and a paniova. Paniovas are three large fabrics sewn on a set of cords tied around the waist.

Traditional children's clothing was made from worn women's shirt. These are repurposed to create a long dress shirt secured by a belt on the waist and minimally embroidered on the sleeves and hems.



Traditional costume of the Gilles

Characterized by a well-decorated linen suit, embroidered with heraldic patterns found on the Belgian flag such as lions and crowns. The colors red, yellow, and black brightens the outfit with white trimmings along the collar and cuffs together with a pair of wooden footwear. 


The traditional dress for women exhibiting a vintage styled gown with flaring Celtic embroidered trimmings.


A 16th-century dress for women characterized by a slim waist and a square neckline.

Black dresses were standard wear for a farmer's wife together with a white apron and white caps.

Men wore smocks and beret hats, while boys wore tunics with pantalets, a loose trouser-like undergarment worn by both boys and women.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Petar Milošević, CC BY-SA 3.0

The traditional clothing of Bosnia and Herzegovina displays a mixture of cultures from the Mediterranean, Oriental, and Balkan influences. Handmade using source fabrics such as leather, hemp, wool, and linen locally.

Basic men outfits include a white shirt, loose trousers, a wide belt, and a fez hat. Knitted socks and leather shoes were used as footwear.

Basic women's ensemble consists of a white shirt, long full skirt with an apron or long flowy pants, and a vest. A fez hat covered with a veil adorns her head while wearing either a pair of knitted socks or leather shoes.

Dinaric costumes

Characterized by a shirt fashioned with a right-sided triangle underneath the armpits with embroidered back and chest features. The main difference between the Croatian and Bosnian costumes are the colors used. Croatians only use two colors, while the Bosnian version uses four shades embroidered with geometrical shapes.


Biser Todorov, CC BY-SA 4.0

Women's folk ensemble consists of a shirt, pants, together with a dress and apron for women, and a vest and griddles for the men. One apron dresses include a chemise, an apron seen in the Rhodope region. Two apron clothing consists of a chemise, two aprons (one on each end), secured by a belt. The front apron displays a horizontal or vertical embroidery while the back section highlights cascading pleats and frills.

Saya Clothing

A saya is an overcoat decorated along the neckline and sleeves using color a single color of black, blue, and white made from wool or cotton.

Tunic clothing 

The whole outfit consists of an ornate and colorful apron, chemise, belt, and a sleeveless, long or short-sleeved tunic.

Men's wear is divided in terms of color, black, and white. White men's ensemble consists of a shirt, pants, girdle, belt, and overcoats made from the frieze. The apron is predominantly red tied around the waist.

Black men's outfit includes loose pants, a shirt, belt, girdle, a cap, and a vest or jacket. This set of clothing was worn by farmers.


Traditional Croatian clothing can be found in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Croatia.

By Roberta F., CC BY-SA 3.0

Women's essential attire includes a white blouse, dress, or underskirt where a kotula, koret, ubrsac are added. A kotula is an ornate jacket worn ober the blouse, The koret is an apron ties around the waist, and the ubrsac is a scarf or shawl embroidered with either a flower or animal feature using beautifully colored thread such as black, gold, red, white or blue. Unmarried women wears red ribbons with braided together with the hair, while married women wears a scarf over her head. A pair of knee high stockings and opanci completed the traditional Croatian look.

Men's wear includes a black or white colored shirt and baggy pants. Fermen, an ornate vest is worn over the shirt with a waistcoat and a hat.

Slavonian Traditional Clothing


By Roberta F., CC BY-SA 3.0

Brightly colored with elaborately embroidered floral designs made for wool or silk fabric. The shirt called odnjica displays fringed sleeves. Men wore thick and embroidered vests or coats, with an apron worn above the pants.


By Roberta F., CC BY-SA 3.0

Exhibits a simple design with a black colored shirt, skirts, and pants. Men also wore black colored clothing and hats. Additionally, women wore a blue or red silk shawls decorated with a floral theme and thick aprons likewise embroidered with detailed floral patterns.

By Roberta F., CC BY-SA 3.0

Known as the continental style characterized by a white basic clothing adorned with ornamented apparels highlighting a red color embroidered with a gold thread.


Peloponnesian Folklore Foundation

Traditional Cypriot clothing is famous for their striking and conservative appearance. Originally made from a silk and cotton fabric, using darker colored clothing during winter and lighter colored outfits were worn during special events.

Alatsia is a fabric used made from a durable cotton fabric characterized by dark stripe set on a white base. Women either wore a white trouser or bloomer undergarment underneath knee-length cotton shirt with wide sleeves.

Unban dress was also used and seen in Greece. The ensemble includes a saia, a top dress with slits made from either silk or cotton. 

Amalia dress is made of a silk skirt paired with a highly ornamented fitted sarka, a sleeved jacket. The silk blouse is tailored with lace trimmings on the cuffs and the collar.

Futas, a rectangular shaped cloth is tied in front of the waist comparable to a belt. Boots and light colored leather shoes was commonly used in the 19th century and was replaced by black shoes in the 20th century.

Men's wear is called vraka, a thickly pleated dress, dyed with black for elders and blue for younger men. Worn with a striped vest and a scarf headdress.



By Jialiang Gao

Made from homespun linen and wool, traditional Chez attire are made with light materials. Women's ensemble consists of a white blouse, apron, and skirt. Men's wear is composed of a loose jacket and a pair of breeches.

Divided into two categories, Bohemian and Moravian.

Bohemian clothing

Made with a cotton fabric with ribbon and silk scarf accent. Married women wore long skirts with a white scarf, while older men wore long coats.


Working classmen wore black colored ensemble, women wore a long dress together with a bolero jacket. Colored scarves were donned on special events with a black or yellow coat.


wlashbrook, CC BY 2.0

Originally made from wool and linen yarn colored with vegetable dyes. A laced blouse is worn together with a jacket, paired with a skirt decorated with a silk apron supported by a petticoat undergarment. The look is completed with a lace bonnet equipped with a scarf-like tie to keep the bonnet in place.

Men wore leather made knee breeches, worn together with a pair of white stockings completed with leather boots or dress shoes with a buckle accent. Wealthy Danish wears jackets with silver buttons while lower classmen jackets with tin buttons.


Donald Judge from England

Basic clothing for women were made from homespun linen or wool. Only the headdress and shirts were sewn from linen white other apparels were made from wool. The headdress and headscarf are bleached, while the remaining woolen apparels are tinted with herbal dyes. Unmarried and young women do not use a headscarf and instead uses a ribbon to beautify her hair. Married women were required to wear an apron for she may affect the fertility of the land when a mistress does not wear one.


Ninaras, CC BY 4.0

Dating back for the 16th century, the traditional wear of Finland is composed or brightly colored apparels made from leather embroidered with silk. Motifs from nature and history is displayed in their design. Women wore a skirt smock, long and wide-sleeved blouse with a rectangular collar, apron, scarf, jacket, and bodice. Men wore a long-sleeved cotton shirt, knee-length woolen pants tailored with button type of closure called luukkuhousut, waistcoat, jacket, a pair of buckled shoes.

West Finnish Traditional Clothing

Characterized by wide sleeves and a turned up collar, full A-line skirt, bodice, jacket and drapes. Aprons were made with colored stripes, with horn-shaped silk cap or a silk headband for young women.


Karnelian clothing are characterized by a darker colored apparels made from wool. This is due to a harsher environment. Shirts and bodice were embroidered simply with drapes while aprons were decorated with stripes ribbon and lace.


Alsatian clothing

Originated in the 18th century reflecting its religious belief. Made from homespun linen dyes with shades of black, blue, red, green, and purple.

Women's wear consists of wide long-sleeved blouse with long full skirt, apron, bodice, and clogs.

The blouse is fashioned from a stiff collar worn by the peasants to a soft turned-down collar with pleated sleeves fastened by a ribbon.

The skirt is donned over the blouse, below the knee in length, tailored from a silk or cotton fabric adorned with ribbons and flowers.


Made with knitted lace edges matching its cuff sleeves.


Worn snugly on top of the blouse with a lace front and a hooked end knotted with a ribbon.


Used to keep the wearer warm, luxuriously made form a silk fabric, embroidered with flowers and a checkered pattern.


Knotted bonnets embroidered with silver or gold thread and sequins further embellished with rhinestones lined with lace. Married women and Protestants use Black, while the red color symbolizes a Catholic wearer.

Men's wear

Consisting of a checkered or blue striped patterned shirt, made from a cotton fabric. Paired with a triangular scarf and a wide brimmed hat accentuated with a black silk ribbon. Long pants replaced the leggings using button clasps. Traditional waistcoats made from red wool are replaced with an adjustable version adorned with various buttons. Large brimmed hats are likewise replace with knitted fur caps.

Briton Clothing


A white lace headdress varying in shape and size depending on the location.


The traditional wardrobe of Georgia represents nature and their way of life.

Women's Attire

Women wore brightly colored dresses such as red, white, blue, green or yellow made from either a silk or a velvet fabric.

Kartuli – a long dress with highly decorated bodice worn with a long and ornate belt.

Lechaki – a triangular veil headdress

Chikhta – cardboard cap tailored with a velvet fabric

Chadri – large and long veil covering the whole body for the eyes or face downwards.

Men's Attire

Piranha - undershirt

Sheidishy - an underpant 

Chokna - a woolen jacket with long sleeves, worn with a belt. Commonly made in black , white, gray and brown color.

Kaba – a silk jacket with silk button clasp on the chest and cuffs worn by wealth men.

Kuladga – likewise a short jacket worn by rich men made from a velvet fabric with fur accents.

The rich wore fur hats, while other wore burka, a hat made from felt material.

Koshi (high heeled boots), mesti (soft shoes), tsagi (high leather boots) are footwear's worn by the elites while regular people wore basts.


Tracht is a term used for traditional apparels such as clothes, accessory, hairstyle and jewelry following tradition. This represents the social status of the wearer from workers to high-ranking officials. hard laborers  like farmers were forbidden to wear to wear clothing made for nobles.

Men's wear consists of a knee-length leather pants called lederhosen, a clothing worn by the working classmen together with a pair of woolen socks and rustic shoes. An H-shaped suspender with a bib –like front flap worn with a shirt, sweater, and stockings designed from wool or linen fabric.

Women wore a dirndl, a, dress characterized with a riffled apron, blouse, and a skirt. An attire wore by female servants due to its comfortable design made specifically for hard labor. Well-off women wore silk dirndl when attending events only to have a connection with regular folks. As times passed, this has become a symbol of the country worn together with elaborate hats like goldhauben and bollenhut and was donned during weddings, festivals and other festive events. A bollenhut is a bulbous hat made from straw adorned with fourteen differently sized bulbs, color coded with red for unmarried women,  and black for married females.

In lower Saxony, dresses were made with floral patterns in contrast to the customary black and white trachten.

In the 18th century, the ensemble for peasant evolved to a fashionable, French inspired clothing characterized by scarves, puffy petticoats and corsets.


Sharon Mollerus, CC BY 2.0

Women's traditional dress are modest and womanly consisting of:

Poukamiso –a long colored or printed cotton blouse.

Segouni – shirt or long-sleeved made of wool or velvet vest. Often available in black or white.

Bodia – brightly colored aprons decorated with ribbons or embroidered with floral or geometric patterns.  

Zonari – sash

Mandili – large and colorful scarf worn as a headdress.

Tsarouhia - shoes

Men's wear

Fustanella – wide, knee-length men's skirt, usually in white or black.

Trousers – baggy

Poukamiso –loose fitting long blouse made from a silk or cotton fabric with lacy cuffs.

Yeleko – vets

Zonari  - hat

Kaltses – leggings

Gonatares – leg  garters

Tsarouhia – leather shoes with pointy tip and a pompom accent.


Silar, CC BY-SA 3.0


Men wore celebratory and colorful shirt well decorated clothing such as floral stitching and ribbons. Brimmed and fur caps were also worn by men and in special events, hats are embellished with cluster of flowers.

Women a one-of-a-kind headdress representing their marital status. The ensemble consists of a short shirt made from linen extending right below the waist. Paired with a wide and full skirt also made from linen or velvet worn during festivities. Bodice made from silk, cotton or linen occasionally sewn together with the skirt. Red leather boots are iconic to this region.


Men wore short shirts reaching just above the waist. Originally loose, without cuffs and collar, and later replaced with embroidered shirts with collar and cuffs. Breeches were pleated trousers called full gatya, worn with a dark vest made from fur or leather. Kuzsok was a famous embroidered sleeveless fur coat made from sheepskin used while working.

Women traditional dress consists of an ornate blouse, with frilled cuffs and collar together with a pleated petticoat and skirt. Red skirt for unmarried girls, blue for young wives, black for older women. Aprons were also color-coded. White for young girls and colored aprons for older women,


There are five recognized types of national clothing for women, these are:


A type of clothing used during the 17th to 19th century. The design is well known for its iconic hat designed with a curved sheet accent called spadafaldur. Faldbuningur serves as the wide collar to support the high gold wire sheet.


A black dress made from wool worn by women in the 18th to 19th century. The ensemble includes a twill jacket and kilt made from knitted yarn paired with a black tail cap, which was previously an apparel for men. This was said to have been curated due to the clamor for better working clothes.


A type of clothing for women displaying colored bodice, paired with a standard tail cap.


Clothing for women with Viking inspiration.


The modern version of the faldbuningur.

Men's attire comes in four versions:


The most traditional of all the men's wear consisting of a pair of trousers made from wool, double buttoned vest and jacket (treyja) that is occasionally replace by a single buttoned vest called peysa. Commonly made with dark colors such as black, green or blue paired with a red or white colored vest.


The continental version of Icelandic clothing inspired by the Vikings.


The modern type of clothing for men consisting of a tuxedo often compared to the national costume of the Faroes Island.



Common folks wore knee-length tunics or leine tied by belt. Women would use it as an underwear worn under a dress, while men wore them as it is. Irish men wore the kilt of Scotland to represent a solid stand against England. Yellow was the color of choice displaying this rebellion.

Cloaks' were a symbol of wealth made with various shades. This distinguish the wearer from the slaves for it was decreed that slaves may only wear single colored coats.

Aran sweaters are made from a water-repellant type of wool perfect for the sudden change of weather in Ireland. These were embroidered with patterns with traditional meaning. Inars were pleated jackets with split sleeves. Tailored from thick wool with a stand up collar and buttoned sleeves.

Females uses brightly colored traditional dresses embroidered with designed of Celtic origin.


© Hans Hillewaert

Traditional Italian clothing varied from region affected by the climate and ethnicity. However, a general theme can be seen. Flowy wide skirt adorned with floral patterns and a corset is a typical attire for women, while men wears shirt, baggy trousers and boots. Comparable to other countries, laborers and the elites are distinguished by the fabric of their clothes. Laborers use clothes made from wool in dark colors, which are a practical shades for their occupation. The elites wore the same type of clothing using a more luxurious fabric such as silk and velvet. They also wore more pieces of jewelry. Laborers only wore beautiful dresses with nature-inspired embroideries during festivities associated with harvest.

Women also wore a type of flat hat used balance the basket full of produce to the market. This has evolved to what we usually seen in costumes where hats are decorated with fake flowers and fruits imitating how they used to carry these products.


By Steve Evans from Citizen of the World - Kazakh Clothing, CC BY 2.0

Kazakhstanis traditional clothing is influenced the harsh climate of their lifestyle. The material used varies from cloth leather, and fur. They also use imported luxurious fabrics such as brocade, silk and velvet.

Women's clothes are called Koylek. Kunikey or sun-like clothes are worn by unmarried women, tailored from soft fabric highlighting the waist area. Paired with loose pants made from sheepskin and cotton. Coat known as Kupe is made from the fox coat or goats' hide. Chapan is dark colored loose robe worn by both men and women. This may be made form wool for common folks, velvet for the wealthy embroidered with gold, and an ornamental stitching called applique.

Unmarried women wore scarves and fur caps, while rich women wore velvet caps with gold embroidery.

Men wore an inner and outer pant paired with robes without an undershirt. Shelbar, the outer pants was made from camel hair fur and hide. Richly embroidered with silk tailored with fur or lace edges. Jackets were insulated with wool, while coats were made from fox, raccoon, and sheepskin.

There were five  types of headgear worn by the Kazakhs, these are Aiyr kalpak, an upturned hat embroidered with decorative patterns, used by the wealthy. Borik is a warm round  hat made from anima fur as well as a tymal with its distinct earflaps. Kulpara is a hood used for camouflage. Finally, a takiya, a light hat adorned with animal and floral patterns.


By Shkumbin Saneja - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0

Podgur is the term Kosovo's traditional wear for both male and female, an attire that originated since the 5th century. The attire represents the start of a new life.

Men's Podgur consists of:

Chestnut Shirt worn with a blazer tailored with black stipes along the collar and sleeves.

Xhamadani – a black double-breasted, waist-length coat with wide sleeves without a collar.

Mitani – A blazer worn during colder seasons made from a silk satin fabric. Characterized having the same for as that of an xhmadani, with additional pocket for cigars.

Telinat – long undergarment made from a linen fabric tied with a shoke.

Tirque – scarf fashioned with multicolored wavy patterns used to enclose the plis covering a portion of the head and ears. Men with the age of 40 and up wear scarves.

Plis – white spherical hat.

Xhurdia – a jacket popular among the youth for its tight sleeves and open chested, with a loose back design.

Japanxhija – a garment used in cases of a long journey or ruthless weather. Tailored from a black and white soutane, with long and wide sleeves.

Shoke – a belt made from knitted wool secured at the back.


By Shkumbin Saneja - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0

Tailored with a T-shaped collar shirt, worn to together with a vest, gaitan, and beautifully embroidered pants. Worn together with a white socks and a plis.

Women's clothing includes:

Hat – women wore a spherical hat with gold coin stitching and later changed to lace fringe called hotoz.

Kemisha – at garment described with tapered elbow–length sleeves.

Mitani – women's mitani also evolved from having a sleeveless, collarless, with sun and moon patterns to a tight collar, long sleeves, and a purple hue.

Guna – a knee-length women's jacket tailored with wool fibers with black cord stitching.

Peshtjellak - an attire composed of a long white blouse, double sided apron, longer for the back and shorter at the front. a short vest called jeleku, large wooden belt, colorful scarf, and black socks. The attire is worn with accessories such as necklaces, bracelets, and rings constructed from either gold or silver.

Xhubleta – Exhibiting a wavy skirt cut in a bell-shape, worn on top of a white blouse suspend by a pair of strap on the shoulder.


By Shkumbin Saneja - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0

Originating on the southern portion of Kosovo, the attire consists of a white long undergarment, a white blouse, bead embroidered vest, a hat likewise decorated with beads and golden rivets. A pair of white socks is distinctive to this attire unlike other traditional clothing using black colored socks.


Latvia's traditional dress are divided into two, these are:

Ancient dress

During the seventh to thirteenth century, Latvian dresses were handmade using nail binding technique from fleece and flax fibers together with shoes likewise sourced from natural resources such as animal fur and leather. They also used bronze accessories.

Ethnic dress

Under the government of Germany in 16th century, the traditional dress incorporated German features on their tradition dress. Knitting was used to handcraft garments like sock, and gloves. Laborers use white and gray dyed clothing made from wool.

Women wore shirts, striped skirts, and delicate thigh-length fringed shawls made hand woven from linen together with long belts and white aprons.

Men wore shirts and pants made from linen, wool coat decorated with colored cords of blue, red or green, belt, shoes, socks, and hat.


The garment distinctive of a Vidzeme dress is its multicolored striped long skirt. Donned together with a long embroidered shawl, secured by a silver brooch. A tall cylindrical hat made from linen completes the attire.


Characterized by monotonous skirts embroidered at the hem, bronze belt, a shawl or cape likewise exhibiting a needlework pattern and fringes along the edges.


A country located between Austria and Switzerland. Being a neighboring country of Austria, one of their traditional is a dirndl. A woman's attire characterized by a low-cut neckline, a close-fitting bodice or corset, high-waisted long skirt and apron. Formal dirndls are elaborately embroidered collars with chest or shoulder-length tassels or laces.


Consist of a black skirt and a white blouse decorated with knitted and laces along the sleeves and neckline. The apron is made from a silk fabric using traditional colors of red and brown as that of the tight bodice embellished with silver stitch patterns. The black bonnet highlights a silver needlework at the back, paired with lacy white gloves and stockings, completed with a pair of black shoes.


Lee Fenner from Kaunas, Lithuania, CC BY 2.0

White is the predominant color in clothing of married women in Aukstaitija signifying pride and solemnity. Aukstaitijan clothing has two type of long and wide skirts, a red embroidered skirt made from linen or a checkered skirt made from wool. These two are worn as a single entity or worn at the same time. Aprons were made from white linen also designs with the colors and patterns of the skirts. The corset was also quite ornate made from various fabric such as silver and gold brocade, wool, velvet or silk equipped with metal chains or slim ribbons for fastening. Nuometas (sash) displaying red decoration were worn by married women, while young girls wore a galloon, which is a heavy ribbon with a sturdy back and tailored with a metallic thread. Kaftans (sermega) were used by women during winter styled with velvet stripes.

Dzukijan traditional attire includes an embroidered shirt with colorful and checkered skirts and aprons. Dark colored corsets balances the extravagant base worn together with a sash woven with various traditional patterns. Crowns and galloons serves as their main headdress, while bonnets are mainly worn by married women.

In the Suvalkija region, women wore richly colored ensembles, such as blouses with embroidered with local patterns with wide sleeves. Skirts were fashioned with vertical stripes paired with a kapsai or zanavykai type of apron. 


Mhmrodrigues, CC BY-SA 4.0 

Luxemburg exhibits the same traditional clothing as that of Belgium. Men wore the traditional blue vest and white-collar shirt ensemble. Paired with the same shade loose pant gathered at the end. A pair of high leather boots completes the costume. Women wore a traditional floral embroidered skirt, dress shirt, and vest. Both the hem of the skirt and the long white sleeves are embroidered with flower patterns as the vest displays colorful needlework lining.


By maltatoday

Malta is known for their traditional wear called Ghonnella (Faldeta). Used as shawl or dress associated with the charshaf of the Turks. It was foretold that the attire was introduced in Malta as a form of a morning clothing originating from Italy.

Initially made from a dark colored cotton or silk fabric worn by noble women. Rich women wore a type of white or colorful headdress called ghenienel. A head covering outlining the side of the face with a starched to a stiff body with a sturdy frame made possible by a cardboard or whalebone. It's broad feature makes it a great headgear for both hot and cold weather while its long drape serves as a coat.


Mage31, CC BY-SA 3.0

Women wore a typical white blouse with wide frilly sleeves tied around the elbow with a ribbon. A dark colored vest or bodice is worn over the blouse paired with a red and white stripe skirt and a red apron. The look is completed with a pair of white stockings, shoes, and a red cap with wide lace trimmings.

Men wore knee-length pants with a colorful sash tied around his waist and a decorative cord around his neck. a flat cap serves as a headgear paired with leather shoes.


 Jorge Campos, CC BY-SA 2.0

The design of traditional women's clothing varied depending on their faith. Basic garments are white long-sleeved shirts, colored woolen dress, apron, wide woolen belt and socks. Some wore a vest (kamizola) together with a skirt in place of a dress (Doloma). Kamizolas being made from luxurious fabrics of silk and damask, were worn by rich women. Dolomas were embellished with gold buttons and cords. Traditional fabrics used are made from flax or hemp fibers. Skirts and aprons were tailored using silk with delicate lace and embroideries using a gold thread.

Wool belts were replaced by leather in later years while retaining red colored décor. The leather version was later replace by a type of belt called cemer, these are silver filigree belt adorned with green a red stones.

Men wore knee-length trousers with a corded end, paired with a  knee-high woolen socks that is either tucked under the pants or tied together. The cord belt is also tied around the waist to secure the pants. White buttoned shirts were worn together with either a peasant jacket called gunj styled with tassels and copper buttons.



Traditional Dutch costume for women are quite simple. The outfit includes a headdress made from a white starched fabric to maintain its shape whether it is the high pointed design or worn flat on the head.

A loose-fitting, long sleeved shirt is donned under a tight fitting bodice commonly worn in contrasting color. The bodice or vest can be interchanged with a long tunic reaching down covering the skirt.

An apron will always be a part of European clothing, Traditional Dutch aprons were decorated with lace with flower pattern needlework. Long and made with a variety of colored fabric depending on the region.

Women wore a layered skirt giving a full body enabling then to move freely. As women are active with housework and other task, dark colored skirts are worn for practicality.

Klompen – wooden clogs that both sexes wore. These are handmade carved, coated, and decorated with local design, which is surprisingly comfortable to wear with a pair of woolen socks.

Men wore loose-fitting navy or white shirts furnished with brass buttons. A vest, suspender are worn on top of the shirt with an additional coat during cold weathers.

Men also wore dark colored pants as the women. They are loose-fitting and knee-length for a comfortable and clean wear.

North Macedonia (formerly Macedonia)


The country gained its independence in 1991. The country's traditional clothing is influenced by the Balkans. Red and gold are the predominant colors seen on North Macedonian's folk costumes. They wore elaborate and richly embroidered clothes and accessories. The basic the ensemble for women consist of white long blouse, embroidered red dress decorated with tassel sleeve end, festive aprons with tassel edges, headscarf, multicolored woven socks, and a pair of felt shoes. Men wore a white shirt with an upturned collar, vest, jacket, belt, long trousers, woven socks and sheepskin shoes. A fez hat serves as their headgear.

These are festive in appearance adorned with likewise elaborate pieces of jewelry. The scarf headdress comes in a variety of designees, some a simply embroidered along the hem, while some are adorned with flowers, beads, and coins. Belt are also extremely embroidered and decorated while some are totally made from silver.


By Own work, Copyrighted free use

Bunad is the general term for traditional clothing in Norway ranging from the 18th to 19th century.

Traditional bunad for women include a long sleeved blouse embroidered with floral pattern on the up turned collar chest and along the cuffs, full-length skirt, a tight fitting bodice, embroidered with colorful floral patterns tied by a cord. Shawl worn over the shoulders and tucked inside the vest. Aprons were a custom in some localities while others do not adorn them. Headdresses varies per region, some wore a flat cap fully embroidered with the same pattern as the dress, while some wears a crown-like headgear for special occasions.

Men's bunad consist of an embroidered lined long sleeved shirt with an up turned collar, a double buttoned and floral embroidered vest, hodden trousers, decorated at the hem by cords or ribbons, white knitted socks, brimmed hat, long sleeved jacket, and a pair of buckled shoes.

Silver Bunad Brooch Jewelry

Bunad jewelry are made from silver, mostly fashioned as a brooch used to secure and decorate the shirt and worn on the cuffs. They were expensive representing the financial status of the wearer. Fashion d intricately by the blacksmith and was passed on from generation as a family heirloom. Men wore fewer jewelry only using silver buttons and chains on their outfit.


By Agnieszka Kwiecień, Nova - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0 pl


One of the oldest city of Poland where the Cracow old town was the first ever recipient of UNESCO world heritage site. Women's traditional ensemble includes a long sleeved white shirt, richly embroidered and bead embellished vest, floral motif full skirt, lace apron, leather laced up boots and a coral bead necklace. The headdress worn depends on the marital status of the women, flower circlet for unmarried ladies, while ahead scarf is for the married women. Men's wear consists of a white long sleeved shirt, richly embroidered long vest, stripe loose pants, wide leather belt with long tassels fashioned with a laced up closure,  and a cap decorated with feathers and long ribbons.

Lachy Sadeckie

Polish women living the southern section of Poland wore long sleeved pleated white shit paired with a long pleated floral skirt with embroidered hems, dark bodice likewise embroidered with colorful motif giving life to the dark colored bodice. Men wore embroidered blue vest over a white long sleeves shirt with the same decoration in the collar and cuffs. Tapered pants displays colorful stitching along the sides tucked inside the high leather boots.


The people inhabiting on the southern section of Poland has a different tradition dress. Women wore highly decorative and embroidered ensemble. The outfit includes a long sleeved white blouse with wide lacy collar, tight fitting bodice with laced up ribbon with a unique flap embroidered fringed waist accent, apron, a pair of sock and moccasin shoes. Men wore wide, long sleeved shirt, tapered trousers, a richly embroidered vest, a brimmed hat highlighting a feather accent, and a pair of decorated sock and sheepskin shoes.  


By Rosino - FlickrUploaded by tm, CC BY-SA 2.0

Different regions of Portugal exhibit a version of their own traditional dresses:

Aveiro – Salineira

Located on the northern portion of Portugal, women wore the basic ensemble of laced- sleeved blouse, long and brightly colored skirts, brown woolen apron (serghilla), fringed shawl and a pair of slippers. Their clothing also includes a brimmed hat and a scarf for their duties encompasses bringing sea salt from the ships to the storage house.


Comfortable and modest clothing is shown in this region of Portugal where women work on the field.

Women's basic outfit consist of a floral or striped pattern cotton shirt, long skirt, neck scarf, brimmed hat, a pair of socks and high leather boots. They were very innovative creating makeshift trouser by tucking the skirt in between the thigh and under the socks or totally tucking the skirt on their waist to move freely.


Located at the heart of Portugal where women were famous for wearing a garment called tricana. The ensemble consist of a blouse, a pair of white lacy stockings, embroidered dark silk skirt and scarf, white cotton blouse, luxurious shawl with silk embellishments (tricana), and clogs. Rich farmer's daughter wears this costume.


Another region from central Portugal where women are famous for their brightly colored ensemble. Women wore white shirt with a wide down lace collar, an A-cut full skirt, embroidered apron with a little pocket, and a pair of stockings and low-heeled clogs.


From the western end of Portugal where women practice door to door selling of fish, their outfit is tailored from regular and comfortable fabrics. The outfit includes a plaid flannel full skirt, supported by a petticoat and culottes maximizing the volume of the skirt. Floral shirt long sleeved frilly shirt, a floral embroidered dark apron, a flat top brimless hat with a feather accent and a veil, completed with a colorful scarf worn beneath the hat and veil. This costume is perfect for sun protection as they go out earning money by selling fishes.


Another region in the western end of Portugal, women wore a woolen hooded cloak. The richly decorated and lace trimmed outfit comprises of a woolen skirt and scarf, frilled white blouse, white linen apron, black hooded cape, and a pair black buckled shoes. This distinctive dark cloak called capote-e-capelo is long and large that covers a woman from head to toes, worn during historical festivities.


A region from west Portugal where grapes is their primary produce. The most notable apparel in this regions outfit is the pointed hat. Women's ensemble consists of a long sleeved white blouse with wide lacy gathered cuffs, multicolored stripe skirt, short cape-like jacket, pigtail cap, and a pair of boots. 



Mens' Clothing in Romania

Itari – a long trouser worn by peasants using a special sheep wool called tigaie. These are specially worn during winter in Moldavia.

Cioareci – another peasant trouser made with wool fabric that is thicker than an itari. Women wear these during winter in the Banat region. Meanwhile in Moldovia, it is worn during regular working days. These are worn over the boots by the Moldavians in contrast to the tucked in type used by the Transylvanians.

Opinci – a peasant sandals worn in many European countries.

Pieptar – embroidered vest made of sheepskin made available in two different style based on the opening. Spintecat has a form opening while the infundat exhibits a side opening with a buttoned closure.

Camasa – a shirt fashioned in various cuts and styles made from hemp, linen, and cotton.

Suman – a peasant coat worn by both male and female during cold weather. Made from a dyed felt fabric in black, cream, white, or gray shade. These coats are made from home using woven wool cloth created through the process of valtoare resulting to a roughly made fabric.

Chimir – a thick leather belt.

Braue – A thick woven belt.

Caciula – A fur hat worn in different regions of Romania represented by the color of the hat. Gray for Moldavia, white for Bana, and Black for the general population.

Motata – a conical cap with a high crown made by sewing four cuts together, the peak is bent either backward or side or forward when worn.

Cujma Rotilata – a cylindrical cap.

Skullcap – A fur cap made by stretching untreated fur on a wooden block shaped like a human head.

Casciula – Another cylindrical cap made from fur worn by shepherd. This exhibit a unique broader crown than the base.

Brimmed felt hats were also used in different part of Romania with different sizes of brim depending on the region. A unique straw hat made in Transylvania is characterized by a 12 inches high crown.

Women's clothing in Romania includes:

Le or  Carpathian shirt -  a pleated shirt exhibiting embroideries under the armpit, sleeves, and shoulders.

Fota – a wraparound skirt, which can be fashioned with two apron like flap covering both the front and rear of a woman. This is worn around the waist tailored from woven wool or cotton in black or brown shade embroidered with red trimming called bete rosii for accent and durability. Fote in Moldavia is made from hemp and was worn during the summer season. These were fashioned with stripe patterns, while geometric pattern were used on the  fotes of Mutenia. Luxurious gold and silver thread embroidered silk is found in Argey and Muscel.

Morama – a headdress that contributes a beauty and represent social status of women worn in the southern region of Transylvania, Moldavia and Romania. Unmarried women are not required to wear any head covering; a marama is awarded only after the wedding ritual.


Ninaras, CC BY 4.0

The history of Russia's traditional clothing originated in 9th century worn by the peasants. The two ethnic dress of Russia are Poneva and Sarafan. Sarafan is a loose fit jumper worn over a long shirt made from linen. The belt was worn under the sarafan securing the long shirt. The sarafan is made using either linen for ordinary wear or brocade for special events.

Poneva is traditional outfit including a striped or plaid patterned shirt with embroidered sleeves, richly ornamented aprons with lace edges and colorful trimmings. Paired with a traditional scarf headdress completing the peasant look.

Rubaka is a linen shirt embroidered with silk, lace or gold threads.

Koko is a celebratory headpiece used by a bride from a wealthy family, intricately embellished with pearl, gold mesh and embroidery worn during wedding and is handed down from generation to generations.

Men's attire involves a ling shirt with an up collar, a porty or pants, poyas-kushk (belt) and boots. old-fashioned woven shoes were fabricated from birch tree fibers fashioned with cords tying it the lower leg.

Shuba – winter fur coat is worn together with a fur cap with ear flaps called ushanka and felt shoes known as valenki.


By Kolega2357 - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0

Serbian traditional clothing includes a jelek (waistcoat) made from a velvet or wool fabric lined with fur. An Opanci, a peasant shoes made from durable leather with a pointed toe is worn with a decorative long wool sock worn together with a full plaited or linen skirt gathered at the waist with a tkanice. A woman will never go out without a pregace or apron usually decorated with floral patterns. Tunic serves as a shirt tailored with cord sad silver thread designs. Scarves and caps are used as headdresses with some accessories such as collar necklace, bracelets and earrings.

In Sumadija, women braid their hair fastened by a floral hair accessory. Shirt are sewn together with the lower garment made from linen and with embellished with laced sleeves, collar, and hem. Skirts are pleated and tailored with a black and white stripe or a kilt-like pattern, worn under a handmade apron embroidered with floral designs.

Men wore long shirts with loosed trousers gathered around the ankle. Worn together with a gunj vest, jacket and a wool belt.

In the eastern portion of Serbia, men wore a Leskovac, the outfit includes dark colored pants and jelek, white shirt, with a black fur cap called subara. Woemn wore woven skirts with vibrantly colored aprons, white dress, jelek and a scarf headdress.


By Matěj Baťha - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0

Kroje is the term used for the traditional clothing of Slovakia. The costume is worn indifferent occasions creating a varied appearance. Kroje is used as an everyday dress tailored with a very simple and basic design. The attire is has minimal embroidery at hem of eth skirt and sleeves. Celebratory korje is used attending festivities, Sunday church, tailored with decorative floral patterns. Paired with a pair of leather high boots and a scarf headdress. The vest is richly styled and bold colors are used. The last occasion in wearing a kroje is during wedding where the attire is worn with a set of wedding jewelry. Large and fluffy embroidered sleeves with lacy frill edges, worn with an intricately embroidered bodice, long shawls and part headdress characterized by a rigid crown with strips of long patterned ribbon trimmings hand at the back of the headdress. Krpce is a type of a wraparound leather shoes that represents the peasants and farmers, these were replaced with leather boots after World War I.

Women's wear is composed of a chemise, skirt, apron, scarf, corset, and a fur coat.

Men's wears are usually an ensemble of tapered pants, Slovak shirt, waistcoat and a jacket.


RachelH_, CC BY 2.0

Slovenian national clothing exhibit similar features as that of other European countries.


The established national dress of Slovenia origination from the northern Carniola region.

Men's traditional clothing consists of a long-sleeved, plain white shirt paired with white cotton underwear tied around the ankle. A pair of long leather breeches is worn over the underpants, while a colored and floral embroidered vest (lajbic) is donned over the shirt. The attire is completed with a scarf, flat brimmed felt hat and leather boots. Silver buttons is a mark of a rich Slovenian.

Traditional Slovenian wear includes underwear such as an embroidered and lacy white cotton blouse, petticoats and bloomers. Long dress made from calico or silk, cotton or brocade apron, belt, jacket, headdress, and a pair of socks and shoes.

Some distinct accessories of the Slovenian attire is the Skelpanec, a long and thick decorative silver or gold belt with a large bow accent. Another one is the headdress called tjehl available in two varieties. A zavijakca, which is a smaller version worn closer to the head, and the avba that is larger and wider. Made from two fabric, velvet for the frontal  area and linen at the back. Handkerchiefs are donned in place of a tjehl, starched and embroidered tied in a knot.



Traje de flamenco

A type of dress from Andalucia seen in flamenco dancers. A colorful and frilly dress fashioned with either a plain or a polka dot fabric paired with a shawl and floral hair accessories. 

Traje de Fallera or Traje de Torrenti

A standard laborers dress from Valencia in eth 18th century that evolved into a festive dress. The Traje de Fallera worn by women includes a long full skirt, tight bodice and a lacy apron. The women wore rodetes, which consist a large bow hair accessory worn at the back together with a pair of small bow comb worn on each side of the head.

Traje de Chulapo and Traje de Chulapa

Carnation is the flower of choice as an accessory for this traditional attire form Madrid. Traje de chupalpa worn by women consist of a tight-fitting white dress with a square-cut neckline worn with same colored scarf headdress with a carnation floral accent. This is worn with a colorful shawl draped over the shoulder.

Traje de chulapos includes a dark colored vest worn over a white long sleeved shirt, likewise showing a carnation flower accent. The attire is completed with a pair of pants, boots, and a flat cap having the same color as that of the vest.



Being a part of the Scandinavian country, its traditional clothing displays some familiar features from other surrounding countries. Traditional Swedish dresses have hundreds of different version of both males and females with years of history dating back from the 17thc century. However, in all these versions, the daisy flower is a standard and the color of the national flag, which is blue and yellow. The typical traditional ensemble consists of a embroidered long-sleeved white blouse, long skirt, breeches, red or black laced corsets or bodice, silk crepe forklade or apron, neck scarf or sjan, jackets, shoes and a headdress. Materials such as linen wool, cotton and leather were used and wood for wooden clogs.

There are three popular headdresses used by Swedish women, these are huvudbonad, huvudduk, and bindmossa

Kjolvaska is a bag used by both sexes carried around the waist and on top of the apron or pants.

Folkdräkt dress - A commoner dress initially worn by farmers and laborers in all occasions.

Sverigedräkten dress - A type of dress designed to promote patriotism. Queen Silvia wore the dress displaying the colors of the Swedish flag.

Nationaldräkter dress - A type of dress in place of the Folkdräkt dress that the elites started wearing in the romantic period of the 19th century.


Switzerland's traditional dresses are influenced by their clime and culture. There are 26 provinces located in Switzerland and each one has their own version of a traditional dress.

Women's attire generally includes a frock dress tailored with bulbous sleeves and square cut lace fringe top, apron, lace fringed bonnets, white stockings, shoes. In some areas, a laced corset is paired with a loose blouse with puffy sleeves. A common embroidery on a woman's blouse is an edelweiss flower, which is the national flower of Switzerland. A pair of home knitted tights is also a standard garment for women and young boys. The color of the fabric is a important to note for it represents the province they came from. Jewelry is also used to connote if a woman is single lor married. Gold is for married women, while silver is for the single women.

Men's wear includes breeches or leather shorts called lederhosen worn in Bavaria, shirt, long sleeved  jacket, dark stockings and buckled shoes. Men wore straw hats in summer and short brimmed felt hats in winter. 



Turkey's traditional clothing is mainly influenced by the Ottoman Empire. A general Turkish clothing is a baggy pants called salvar, though this is paired with different garments depending on the region.

Aegean Section

Women wore a salvar together with an entari (robe), vest, apron, scarf, socks and slippers. All of these are richly embroidered especially the headdress decorated with coins, bead and flowers. The thick wide belt worn together with the attire is made from silver with chains and large circular buckles.

Men's wear consists of a salvar, jacket (cebken), shirt, belt, socks and a boots. These are likewise embroidered and adorned with jewelry. 

Black Sea area

The ensemble consists of a gomlek or blouse, patterned linen waist wrap called pestemal, a long shawl or kesan, colorful socks and slippers.

Men wore a salvar, shirt, yelek with hanging sleeves, colorful headdress and boots.



Vyshyvanka is a popular shirt with Ukrainian embroidery representing its region based used patterns and dyes on the collar cuff and hem. The needlework used was believed to serve as a talisman protecting the wearer from harm. In the Northern region of Ukraine, the colors of the thread used represent their region. Courage and wisdom for red and black, and white for pureness and contentment.  The southern portion of Ukraine is represented by bright embroideries using the colors of yellow, red, and green hues with nature inspired patters of flowers and vines.

This is paired with a full skirt, waistcoat, and a shawl to cover a married woman's head, while unmarried women are not required to wear outerwear. Apparels like the belts and headgears serve as the attire highlight, well decorated with flowers, ribbon, coins, and beads. Geometric patterns are used in west Ukraine using red and black threads with colored beads and metals. White on white is the color theme for central Ukraine with some black and red designs as well.

Men's wear includes an embroidered long-sleeved shirt and pants.

United Kingdom (UK)

The United Kingdom has no established form of national clothing due to its multicultural customs though some countries belonging to the United Kingdom of Great Britain have their own national dresses.


When we think of Scotland, the image of bagpipes and men wearing skirts comes to mind. Scotland's traditional clothing is called a highland dress.
Men's wear includes a kilt, ghillie shirt with its distinct crisscross lace, sporran (pouch or wallet), belt and a kilt hose and pin. During formal events, a Prince Charlie jacket is worn on top of the ensemble. A coatee with short tails, decorated with cuffs and silver buttons.

Women wore a ghillie shirt, tartan skirt with a sash or shawl.



Gwisg – the term used for Welsh traditional clothing. The attire includes:

Betgwn – the long tail tightly fitted gown with a low-cut top often made from dark blue, red, or black stripes flannel fabric.

Pais – a heavy flannel skirt with a red, black, white, or blue stripes pattern.

Cape – A broad wool cloak used as a hood to cover the Welsh hat.

Shawl – There five types of cape used in Welsh. These are:

  • Fringed square shawl made from wool often worn over the shoulders.
  • Printed turnovers
  • Large woolen whittle with long fringes tied around the waist.
  • Large square nursing shawl is likewise fashioned with long fringes to tie around the waist and hold the baby.
  • Medium sized paisley shawl made from wool and silk, worn on special events.

Fichu - handkerchief tucked around the neck and worn as a scarf.

Stockings – knitted stockings.

Welsh Hat – A top hat with a tall crown and a rigid flat brim.

Men wore waistcoats, a wool jacket, breeches, stockings, and a bowler or Welsh hat.

Vatican City (Holy See)

The center of the Catholic Religion where high-ranking priest takes residence. It is the smallest country in the world based on landmass. The Vatican City was officially declared as an independent country in 1929 when the then prime minister of Italy and Pope Pius XI agreed on a peace treaty giving the land as well as financial support in exchange for being a neutral ground and acknowledging Italy as a country.

As the home of conservative faith, citizens and visitors have to dress traditionally. It is customary for priests and nuns to wear black cassocks where only the hands and face are not covered. The priest also wore a white collared shirt when they are not wearing a Cossack as a form of distinction from regular people. Nuns always wear their habit wherever they go. The guards wear a stripe and blue, yellow and red uniform.

Traditional dresses are rarely worn at our present time or only during festivities and special events. This may be because it does not suit our modern lifestyle and is impractical to use. However, we must not forget the importance of traditional clothing. Culture, history, and identity are what it brings to the table. It brings us back to how our ancestors used to live and evoke nationalism, respect, and gratitude for our country as well as our ancestors, what they have to go through for us to experience what we have right now. So let us treasure these national items of clothing and never forget where we came from.

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